Norm ASTM F1166-95AR06

Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities Deze titel is een machinevertaling van de oorspronkelijke Engelstalige titel (Engelstalige pagina ).
47.020.01 Scheepsbouw en maritieme constructies, algemeen
Samenvatting :

1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to incorporate human capabilities into a design.

1.2 The purpose of this practice is to present human engineering design criteria, principles, and practices to achieve mission success through integration of the human into the vessel system, subsystem, and equipment with the goals of effectiveness, simplicity, efficiency, reliability, and safety for operation, training, and maintenance.

1.3 This practice applies to the design of vessels, systems, subsystems, and equipment. Nothing in this practice shall be construed as limiting the selection of hardware, materials, or processes to the specific items described herein. Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions, this practice is applicable to design of vessel systems, subsystems, and equipment for use by both men and women.

1.4 Copies of specifications, standards, drawings, and publications required by contractors in connection with specific procurement functions should be obtained from the procuring activity or as directed by the contracting officer.

1.5 This practice is not intended to be a criterion for limiting use of material already in the field in areas such as lift repetition or temperature exposure time.

1.6 Force Limits—If it is known that an item is to be used by an already established occupational specialty, for which physical qualification requirements for entry into that specialty are also established, any discrepancy between the force criteria of this practice and the physical qualification requirements shall be resolved in favor of the latter. In this event, the least stringent physical qualification requirement of all specialties which may operate, maintain, transport, supply, move, lift, or otherwise manipulate the item, in the manner being considered, is selected as a maximum design force limit.

1.7 Manufacturing Tolerances—When manufacturing tolerances are not perceptible to the user, this practice shall not be construed as preventing the use of components whose dimensions are within a normal manufacturing upper or lower limit tolerance of the dimensions specified herein.

1.8 This practice is divided into the following sections:

1 Scope
2 Referenced Documents
3 Terminology
4 Significance and Use
5 Control/Display Integration
6 Visual Displays, General Information
7 Location and Arrangement of Visual Displays
8 Coding of Visual Displays
9 Transilluminated Displays
10 Scale Indicators
11 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Displays
12 Large-Screen Displays
13 Other Displays
14 Audio Displays, General Information
15 Audio Warnings
16 Characteristics of Audible Alarms
17 Signal Characteristics in Relation to Operational Conditions and Objectives
18 Verbal Warning Signals
19 Controls for Audio Warning and Caution Devices
20 Speech Transmission Equipment
21 Controls, General Information
22 Arrangement and Grouping of Controls
23 Coding of Controls
24 Rotary Controls
25 Discrete Linear Controls
26 Continuous Adjustment Linear Controls
27 General Requirements for Labeling
28 Label Content
29 Specific Requirements by Label Type
30 Anthropometry
31 Workspace Design Requirements
32 Environment
33 Maintainability
34 Accessibility
35 Cases
36 Lubrication
37 Fasteners
38 Unit Design for Efficient Manual Handling
39 Handwheel Torque
40 Equipment Mounting
41 Conductors
42 Connectors
43 Electrical Wires and Cables
44 Test Points
45 Test Equipment
46 Failure Indications and Fuse Requirements
47 Hydraulic Systems
48 Design of Equipment For Remote Handling
49 Small Systems and Equipment
50 Operational and Maintenance Vehicles
51 Hazards and Safety
52 User-Computer Interface
53 Data Display
54 Text/Program Editing
55 Audio Displays, Interface
56 Interactive Control
1 Angle of Incidence
2 Example of Display/Equipment Relationship in Main Propulsion Engine Room with Two Medium Speed Diesel Engines
3 Example of Control/Display/Equipment Relationship in Auxiliary Machinery Space with Two Ship Service Generators
4 Example of Control/Display/Equipment Relationship in Machinery Space with Pump, Motor Controller, and Gage Board Located at Vertical Beam
5 CHT Pump Room with Various Options for Locating the Two Motor Controllers and Their Corresponding Gage Boards Given the Location of the Two Pumps
6 Preferred and Acceptable Alternatives for Multiple Row/Column Display and Control Arrangement
7 Vertical and Horizontal Visual Field
8 Lines of Sight
9 Scale of Markings
10 Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives
11 Fixed-Scale Azimuth Dials
12 Shape and Color Coding Operating Ranges
13 Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays
14 Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings
15 Relative Position of Scale Marks, Numerals, and Pointers on Circular Dials
16 Relative Position of Scale Marks, Numerals, and Pointers on Arcs and Circular Dials
17 Drum-Type Counter Design
18 Acceptable Alarm Types for Emergency and Primary Alarms
19 Control Motion Expectancy
20 Foot-Operated Switches
21 Pedals
22 Foot-Operated Controls
23 Leg Strength at Various Knee and Thigh Angles
24 Rotary Selector Controls
25 Rotating Knob Separation
26 Keylock Criteria
27 Keylock Switch Criteria
28 Thumbwheel Orientation and Movement
29 Discrete Thumbwheel Control
30 Knobs
31 Recommended Knob Shapes
32 Easily Recognizable Knob Shapes
33 Ganged Knobs
34 Thumbwheel Adjustment Controls
35 Cranks
36 Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks
37 Handwheels
38 Recommended Mounting Heights for Valve Handwheels
39 Reaching Limits for Bending, Squatting, or Standing on Ladders
40 Pushbutton Switches
41 Toggle Switches
42 Toggle Switch Orientation for "ON"
43 Legend Switch
44 Rocker Switches
45 Slide Switches
46 Push-Pull Controls
47 Lever
48 Slide Levers
49 Isotonic Joysticks
50 Ball Controls
51 Independent Symbols
52 Label Specifications
53 Standing Body Dimensions
54 Seated Body Dimensions
55 Depth and Breadth Dimensions
56 Circumferences and Surface Dimensions
57 Hand and Foot Dimensions
58 Head and Face Dimensions
59 Anthropometric Data for Body Positions Involved in Work Activities
60 95th Percentile Gloved-Hand Dimensions (Mal
61 Helmet Dimensions
62 Aircrewman's Helmet (Size Extra Larg
63 Range of Human Motion
64 Mobile Workspace Dimensions
65 Standing Workspace Dimensions-Cabinets and Electrical Equipment Racks
66 Standing Workspace Dimension-CRTs and Table
67 Standing Workspace Dimensions-Consoles and Work Benches
68 Standing Workspace for Typical Work Positions
69 Display (To
p) and Control (Botto
m) Locations for Standing Crew Work Stations
70 Seated Workspace Dimensions
71 Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk
72 Seating at CRT-Type Work Stations
73 Swing-Away Seat for Short-Term Operations
74 Standard Console Dimensions Key
75 Example of One- or Two-Tier Wrap-Around Console
76 Examples of Three-Tier Consoles
77 Example of a Desk Top Console
78 Preferred Viewing Area
79 Seated Optimum Manual Control Space
80 Type of Ladder, Stair, or Ramp to be Used in Relation to Angle of Ascent
81 Stair Dimensions
82 Incline-Ladder Dimensions
83 Vertical-Ladder Dimensions
84 Well-Designed Work Platform
85 Door Dimensions
86 Hatches Mounted Overhead
87 Hatches Mounted on Vertical Walls
88 Hatch Dimensions
89 Walkway and Passageway Dimensions
90 Effective Temperature Scale
91 Windchill Chart
92 Equivalent Chill Temperature
93 Ventilation Requirements
94 Workspace Reflectance Values
95 Permissible Distance Between a Speaker and Listener's for Specified Voice Levels and Ambient Noise Levels
96 Range of Acceptable Reverberation Time
97 Vibration Exposure Criteria for Longitudinal (Upper Figur
e) and Transverse (Lower Figur
e) Directions with Respect to Body Axis
98 The 90 % Motion Sickness Protection Limits for Human Exposure to Very Low Frequency Vibration
99 Standing, Lateral Reach (Preferred Ar
100 Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arm
101 Crosslegged Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arm
102 Standing, Forward Reach (Both Arm
103 Standing, Forward Reach (Preferred Ar
104 Access Opening Dimensions
105 Minimal Two-Hand and Finger Access
106 Covers and Accesses
107 Covers and Cases
108 Examples of Push-Pull Forces
109 Minimum Handle Dimensions
110 Handwheel Torque
111 Methods of Identifying Plugs and Receptacles to Prevent Mismatching
112 Cable Arrangements
113 Suggested Cable Arrangement in Junction Box for Easy Checking
114 Preformed Cables
115 Fluid Line Connector Recommendations
116 Anatomical Limits on Axially Symmetrical Ocular Metal Part
117 Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures
118 Required Distance Between Hazard and Barrier
1 Metric Equivalents, Abbreviations, and Prefixes
2 Coding of Simple Indicator Lights
3 Application of Various Types of Mechanical Displays
4 Character Sizes for Mechanical Counters
5 Group Viewing of Optical Projection Displays
6 Range Ring Values
7 Functional Evaluation of Audio Signals
8 Intelligibility Criteria for Voice Communications Systems
9 Control Selection Criteria
10 Recommended Manual Controls
11 Conventional Control Movement Stereotypes
12 Minimum Separation Distances for Controls
13 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Types of Coding
14 Recommended Control Colors (FED-STD-595)
15 Knob Detentes Placement
16 Keyboards, Inch-pound Units
17 Keyboards, SI Units
18 Limiting Dimensions for Free-Moving X-Y Controller
19 Arm Strength
20 Hand and Thumb-Finger Strength
21 Character Size Versus Luminance
22 Anthropometric Data
23 Range of Human Motion
24 Mobile Work Space Dimensions
25 Standing Work Space Dimensions for Work Clearances
26 Seated Work Space Dimensions
27 Standard Console Dimensions
28 Human Performance Effects at Various Effective Temperatures
29 Physical and Perceptual Responses to Various Temperatures
30 Temperature and Its Effect on the Comfort of the Extremities
31 Human Reaction to Windchill
32 Specific Task Illumination Requirements
33 Recommendations for Display Lighting
34 Low-Frequency and Infrasonic Noise Limits to Prevent Ear Injury
35 Sound Exposure to Avoid Deafness
36 Maximum Permissible Sound Pressure Level
37 OSHA Permissible Daily Noise
38 Effects of Noise on Human Performance
39 Effects of High-Level Noise on Human Performance
40 Upper Noise Limits Recommended for Military Facilities
41 Comfort Limits for Noise by Octave Band
42 Noxious Exhaust Products of Engine Fuels
43 Design Weight Limits
44 Static Muscle Strength Data
45 Weight and Dimensions of Portable Test Equipment
46 General Comparison Fuses and Circuit Breakers
47 Recommended Clearances Around Equipment Operator's Station to Accommodate 95th Percentile Male Dressed in Arctic Clothing. Operator Seat in Rear Most Position
48 Temperature Limits
49 Shock Current Intensities and Their Probable Effects
50 Allowable Exposure Limits to Some Toxic Gases
51 System Response Times
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